Connect Learning Outcomes and Backward Design
Compare Learning Outcome Models
Wiggins and McTighe’s (2005) backward design model “Understanding by Design” also includes a taxonomy that integrates cognitive, affective, and metacognitive components. Their Facets of Understanding are also non-hierarchical and indicate different types of understanding. The instructor would select that appropriate facets based on the desired learning outcome. Their 6 facets are:
- Explain concepts, principles, and processes by putting it their own words, teaching it to others, justifying their answers, and showing their reasoning.
- Interpret by making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories, and models.
- Apply by effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex contexts.
- Demonstrate Perspective by seeing the bigger picture, recognizing different points of view and offering critical analysis.
- Empathize by perceiving sensitively and taking alternative perspective with an honest attempt at walking in another’s shoes.
- Show Self-Knowledge by perceiving personal styles, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede their own understanding; they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard.
A Model of Learning Objectives: Iowa State University – This includes a great interactive tool for exploring the different dimensions of the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy is part of a set of three taxonomies developed at the same time: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. For outcomes in the affective domain, Bloom’s co-author Krathwhol developed an affective taxonomy focusing on learning outcomes that include emotion which can influence motivation, interest, cooperation, and teamwork. The University of Connecticut provides a table of Krathwhol’s taxonomy with related verbs (pdf, 18k). There are multiple versions of the psychomotor domain which have been compiled for you to review and compare.
Identifying Significant Learning Outcomes: Illinois State University – This offers an overview of learning outcomes for transformational learning goals.
Writing Learning Outcomes Handbook (pdf, 402k): Texas Tech University – This guide includes how to write learning outcomes, examples of course learning outcomes, and methods for assessing learning outcomes. It also has worksheets to help you develop expected learning outcome statements and plans for assessing the expected learning outcomes.
The content found here was designed by Indiana University and adapted for use by the Institute for Faculty Development at Vanguard University. This material is offered under a CC Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike license and should be considered under this license unless otherwise noted. The original content was imported from “Designing and Teaching for Impact in Online Courses” from within Canvas Commons.